Hurricanes and their destructive power – when nature strikes back
Irma is the strongest hurricane in history since measurements have begun over the Atlantic Ocean, but not the first to hit Florida.
In August 1992, Florida was hit by Hurricane Andrew, killing 65 people, damaging over 120,000 homes, and completely destroying about 20,000 homes.
Hurricanes are a meteorological phenomenon consisting of fast winds accompanied by rain. They can last up to several weeks.
Hurricanes are the biggest storms, and the air vortex collapses in front. The dark clouds and the wind announce the hurricane, which can traverse thousands of kilometers in the devastating trail.
They are essentially storms that rotate rapidly, and are characterized by low pressure in the center, a strong vortex whose axis is in the middle of a hurricane and a spiral transfer of clouds with thunderstorms that carry a large amount of rain.
The whirlpool is formed above the large spaces of relatively warm water. The hurricane receives energy from evaporation of water from the surface of the oceans, after which clouds and rain develop, when the humid air cools.
Depending on the strength and location, hurricanes are called differently, so the Atlantic Ocean and the northeastern Pacific Ocean are hurricane, the typhoon – the Northwest Pacific Ocean, the tropical storm and the cyclone – the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean.
According to the strength, hurricanes differ in different ways, but the Sapphire-Simpson scale (SSHS) is usually used according to the steady speed of the wind. For a wind to be a hurricane, its speed minimum should be 119 kilometers per hour. The fifth largest hurricane category is the one whose wind moves at a speed of more than 252 kilometers per hour.
Hurricanes are most commonly formed in the late summer of the two Earth’s hemispheres, and the hurricane season of the northern hemisphere is usually in the first half of September.
The hurricane begins to be created over the Atlantic Ocean, thousands of miles away from Africa’s west coast. It creates minor disturbances in the stream of air that travel from east to west over Africa. Disturbances, which scientists call the eastern waves, can be caused even by the step of a child in the sand of the desert. From this it can create a small vortex of sand which can then cause the development of clouds of storm into the atmosphere. A series of storm clouds may eventually develop into a small, organized thunderstorm cloud system. Such systems travel west and when they come into contact with the warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean can turn into tropical storms and then even into hurricanes.
Hurricanes are “fed” by moist air over the heated waters of the oceans in the equatorial area, and the warm air rises above the surface of the ocean, thus creating a lack of air above the sea, which means that the pressure is reduced, which causes the strengthening of the flow from the surrounding areas with higher pressures in which the hurricane is formed.The newly arrived air is also heated and rises. The warm, humid air rises in height and cools, its moisture condenses and rain clouds develop.
The practice of naming hurricanes with female names is begun by US soldiers who fought during the Second World War over the Pacific Ocean, where most hurricanes occur. But the US Meteorological Service in 1979 decided to include male names in the list of hurricane names in order to respect gender equality.
There are a total of six lists for hurricanes over the Atlantic Ocean and they rotate each year. The names of the hurricanes that caused great damage were thrown out of the list. Such a practice is in order not to cause panic among the population.